Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research, Vol 2, No 1 (2012)

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Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research

http://www.ejournal.sedinst.com

Science Education Development Institute, 2012 Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

Printed in Nigeria ISSN: 2276 - 6715

 

CORRUPTION CONTROL IN NIGERIA: HOLISTIC APPROACH

 

Olugbenga Olagunju

Nigerian Baptist Theological Seminary, Ogbomoso, Samuel200607@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT

Corruption indeed is the bane of any nation. Its malady cut across every religious denomination and political system and it affects both young and old, man and woman alike. It is like cancer that contaminates all strata of the socio-political and economic structure of any society and its malignant nature is difficult to treat. Corruption is not a contemporary affair, it has been on for so long in Africa. No regime in Africa can be exonerated from it. The menace has reached an unprecedented level most especially during Babangida and Abacha regimes which saw the institutionalization of the statement syndrome. The era of Obasanjo witnessed a crusade against corrupt politicians and government official. During his eight year reign the country witnessed the establishment of EFCC and ICPC two bodies that was saddled with the responsibility of prosecuting corrupt officials, in their effort to sanitize the polity. The then Inspector General of Police Tafa Balogun and some bank officials were prosecuted but the efforts of these two bodies was short lived when the regime of Obasanjo ended in 2007. This paper, therefore attempts holistic measures for controlling the menace of corruption in Nigeria. In the discussion, I will define corruption, examine its nature, cause and effect, and conclude by suggesting holistic approaches for controlling the menace of corruption in Nigeria.

 

KEYWORDS: Corruption, Control, Holistic

 

INTRODUCTION


The upsurge of corruption in Nigeria in recent times is disturbing. It seems the menace has defied all treatment and the damages it has done to the national life cannot be quantified. Corruption is a global phenomenon, it is practiced everywhere, the Christians and all religious adherences are not left behind in it.Osoba (1996) Dike has observed that,

 

The menace of corruption leads to slow movement of files in offices, police extortion at tollgates and slow traffics on the highways, port congestion, queues at passport offices and gas stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others. Even the mad people on the street recognize the havoc caused by corruption - the funds allocated for their welfare disappear into the thin air (Dike, 2011).

 

This observation by Dike portrays the true picture of what is happening in every establishment in Nigeria be it private or public. The situation becomes worse with the politicians who because of the quest for power manipulated votes and rigged elections. The judges are not left out. As a result of corruption, justice is perverted and judgment is delivered in favor of the election riggers who are able to pay their way through. Recently, some Judges of the appeal court were sanctioned by the National Judicial Commission for corrupt practices (See the Punch of 8th February, 2011). It is a common belief that corruption is endemic in all facets of Nigerian economy. It affects both the government and non-government organizations and it seems nothing can be done about it. Aluko (2002) rightly observed that,

 

Corruption is a social malaise that has holistically permeates all the nerves of any polity. It is contagious and malignant to the physiology of any political system. Once it sets into any part; it automatically contaminates all the strata of the systems socio-political structures in ways symmetrical to the spread of a bush fire. (Aluko 2002: 393-402)

 

Corruption indeed is the bane of any nation. Its malady cut across every religious denomination and political system and it affects both young and old, man and woman alike. It is like cancer that contaminates all strata of the socio-political and economic structure of any society and its malignant nature is difficult to treat.


 

 

Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 

 


Corruption is not a contemporary affair it has been on for so long in Africa. Akindele (1996) notes that no regime in Africa can be exonerated from corruption. The menace has reached an unprecedented level most especially during Babangida and Abacha regimes which saw the institutionalization of the statement syndrome. The era of Obasanjo witnessed a crusade against corrupt politicians and government official. During his eight year reign the country witnessed the establishment of EFCC and ICPC two bodies that was saddled with the responsibility of prosecuting corrupt officials, in their effort to sanitize the polity. The then Inspector General of Police Tafa Balogun and some bank officials were prosecuted but the efforts of these two bodies was short lived when the regime of Obasanjo ended in 2007.

 

This paper, therefore attempts holistic measures for controlling the menace of corruption in Nigeria. In the discussion, I will define corruption, examine its nature, cause and effect, and conclude by suggesting holistic approaches for controlling the menace of corruption in Nigeria.

 

WHAT IS CORRUPTION

Different scholars from social sciences, psychology, political sciences and religious studies have attempted a working definition for corruption from their various disciplines. However, all of the working definitions are interwoven. The most relevant definition to this paper is the one given by World Bank, Akindele (1995) and Osoba (1998). The World Bank defines corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain.   

 

Akindele (1995) defines it as any form of reciprocal behavior or transaction where both the power/office holder can respectively initiate the inducement of each other by some rewards to grant (illegal) preferential treatment or favour against the principles and interest of specific organization (or public) within the society. Overall, corruption covers such acts as: - use of ones office for pecuniary advantage, - gratification, - influence peddling, insincerity in advice with the aim of gaining advantage, - less than a full days work for a full days pay, - tardiness and slovenliness. (Osoba 1998:378) defines corruption as an "anti-social behaviour conferring improper benefits contrary to legal and moral norms, and which undermine the authorities" to improve the living conditions of the people.

 

Dike (2011 ) notes that though some of these definitions of corruption have been around for over decades, the recent development in Nigeria where discoveries of stolen public funds run into billions of US Dollars and Nigeria Naira, make these definitions very adequate and appropriate. He further observes that corruption is probably the main means of accumulating quick wealth in Nigeria. Corruption occurs in many forms, and it has contributed immensely to the poverty and misery of a large segment of the Nigerian population. Corruption has become institutionalized in Nigeria.

 

Aluko (2002) notes that

Corruption now appears to have become a permanent feature of the Nigerian polity. It had become completely institutionalized, entered into the realm of culture and the value-system; it is now a norm and no longer an aberration. The young ones are born into it, grow up in it, live with it, and possibly die in it. The aged are not left out as they are re-socialized and begin to conform to it.

 

This observation by Aluko is quite true of the situation in Nigeria where corruption has become endemic. The effect is noticed everywhere. The family is not left out. When parent sends their wards on errand the children will expect some gratification from the parent and some unsuspecting parent gratifying their wards with gifts. When the children grow up, corruption becomes part of their daily life.

THE NATURE OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

Akindele and Babalola have made efforts to divide corruption into many forms. These are Political Corruption; Bureaucratic Corruption and Electoral Corruption. Babalola (1995) argued that corruption in politics occurs at two levels. The first level has to do with the various forms of corruption in politics at the law-making level while the second level is at the law-implementation level. At the first level, people try to influence law-making and policy decisions while at the second level, efforts are made by people to pervert the course of justice and influence judgments. Babalola (1995) notes that the perpetration of corruption in politics is done in the following ways:

(a) Buying of votes and voters card during election. The electorates are induced with money.

(b) Electoral officials connived with party agents and security officials to manipulate or falsify election results


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Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 

 


A glowing example was the 1983, 1999, 2003, 2007 elections when INEC officials connived with security forces and government officials to falsify election results.

(c) Use of the power of incumbency and the state machinery. There is the Iron Law of African politics which states that no government in power ever loses election. Office holders therefore makes use of all the available weapons at their disposal to suppress opposition and win elections at all cost.

(d) Use of money. Money is now a crucial and the most potent factor in Nigeria politics. Babalola (1998) and Osoba (2002) has observed that Money bag politics that is being practiced in Nigeria does not make political aspiration available to everybody; it is available only to the rich and powerful. This is true of the Parliamentarian or Presidency, it is the same. Credible people in Nigeria find it difficult to contest for election. The reason for this is that if one cannot dole out money or bribe the electorate with food one would not be voted for or be nominated. This is seeing in party primaries at all levels. It is unfortunate that elective posts usually go to the highest bidder. Dike (2011) notes that, political corruption is sometimes seen as similar to corruption of greed as it affects the manner in which decisions are made, as it manipulates political institutions, rules of procedure, and distorts the institutions of government.

 

Bureaucratic corruption occurs in the public administration" or the implementation end of politics. This kind of corruption has been branded low level and street level. It is the kind of corruption the citizens encounter daily at places like the hospitals, schools, local licensing offices, police, taxing offices and on and on. Bureaucratic petty corruption, which is seen as similar to corruption of need, occurs when one obtains a business from the public sector through inappropriate procedure Babalobi (2008).

 

Electoral corruption includes rigging of election and buying of electoral votes. It also includes promises of office or special favors, coercion, intimidation, and interference with electoral procedures. In the last election, votes were bought; the consequence of this was that losers became winners in the election. This led to the killing and maiming of electorates and party candidates. In offices corruption is rife, government officials are involved in the sales of legislative votes, administrative, or judicial decision, or governmental appointment. Disguised payment in the form of gifts, legal fees, employment, favors to relatives, social influence, or any relationship that sacrifices the public interest and welfare, with or without the implied payment of money, is usually considered corrupt, Dike citing Bayart divides corruption into the following forms:

 

A) Bribery: The payment (in money or kind) that is taken or given in a corrupt relationship. These include kickbacks, gratuities, pay-off, sweeteners, greasing palms, etc.

B) Fraud: It involves some kind of trickery, swindle and deceit, counterfeiting, racketing, smuggling and forgery.

C) Embezzlement: This is theft of public resources by public officials. Embezzlement is stealing from the public institution in which one is employed. Dike notes that, in Nigeria the embezzlement of public funds is one of the most common ways of economic accumulation, perhaps, due to lack of strict regulatory systems. This observation by Dike is correct. Most of the public officials accumulate wealth at the expense of the tax payers money entrusted to them.

D) Extortion: This is money and other resources extracted by the use of coercion, violence or threats to use force. It is often seen as extraction from below (The Immigration officers, Prison personnel, police and custom officers are the main culprits in Nigeria)

E) Favoritism: This is a mechanism of power abuse implying a highly biased distribution of state resources. However, this is seen as a natural human proclivity to favor friends, family and anybody close and trusted.

F) Nepotism: This is a special form of favoritism in which an office holder prefers his/her kinfolk and family members. Nepotism, [which is also common in Nigeria], occurs when one is exempted from the application of certain laws or regulations or given undue preference in the allocation of scarce resources (NORAD 2011).

 

For effective control of corruption in Nigeria, Dike offers these three suggestions.

a). The society must develop a culture of relative openness, in contrast to the current bureaucratic climate of secrecy.

b.) The merit system should be adopted in employment and distribution of national resources, etc.

c.). The leaders should be willing to fight this menace head-on. The government should have political will to deal with corrupt officers.


 

Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 

 

In the word of Nye he notes

Regardless of where it occurs, what causes corruption or the form it takes, the simple fact remains that corruption is likely to have a more profound and different effects in less developed countries, than in wealthy and developed societies. This is due to a variety of conditions, which cannot deviate significantly from the nature of their underdevelopment.(Nye 1967:417-427)

 


Because of the corrosive effects of corruption in national development, and given the relative limited resources or poverty in the region, Africa, and indeed Nigeria, can least afford to be corrupt? In addition to these three observations by Dike, the following suggestions are useful for effective control of corruption in Nigeria. The heart of the people should be addressed by the word of God. It is when the heart is changed and the perception of the people towards material possession is changed then corruption would be controlled. Pastors, Imams and all religious leaders should make it a point of duty to preach against corruption of all forms. People found guilty of corruption should be punished by the law.

 

THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

In his paper Corruption in Nigeria: A New Paradigm for Effective Control Dike citing a report from Reuters a French News Agency notes the following organization and parastatals that were recently affected by corruption.

 

Some official of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) lost their posts because they were found guilty of receiving bribes.

 

All the commissioners of the European Union (EU), resigned because they, too, had been found to be corrupt beyond acceptable limits.

 

In the United States, Enron Corporation, an energy giant and WorldCom, a telecommunication company, were charged with fraud. The companies manipulated their balanced sheets, profit and loss account and tax liabilities. Enrons accountant, Arthur Andersen, collapsed for greed and fraud as it was charged with obstruction of justice in connection to the Enron probe. Some few months ago, it was reported by a London magazine that some CAF officials were caught selling their votes. This led to the removal and suspension of five members of FIFA executive committee. One of them is a Nigerian noted for sport administration. The causes of corruption are many and they have political, social and cultural variables. The most common cause of corruption is poverty. Poverty is the main cause of corruption in third world countries. Nigeria is rated among the most corrupt country in the world. Nigeria is rich in different resources but because the leaders are corrupt average masses do not enjoy the resources the nation is endowed with. According to a report from the workshop organized by ZCC, Lagos from Dec 11-12, Babalobi notes the following as the cause of corruption in Nigeria.

1.                   Weak Government institutions

2.                   Poor pay incentives

3.                   Lack of openness and Transparency in public service                                  

4.                   Absence of key anti corruption tools

5.                   Ineffective political processes

6.                   Culture and acceptance of corruption by the populace

7.                   Absence of effective political financing

8.                      Poverty

9.                   Ethnic and religious difference

10.                 Resource scramble

 

In addition to these myriads of causes are the following reasons given by Osoba (1995), Akindele (1995) and Dike (2008)

1) Great inequality in distribution of wealth;

2) Political office as the primary means of gaining access to wealth;

3) Conflict between changing moral codes;

4) The weakness of social and governmental enforcement mechanisms; and

5) The absence of a strong sense of national community (Bryce, 1921).


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 

 


Ndiulor notes that the causes of corruption in Nigeria cannot deviate significantly, if at all, from the above factors. However, obsession with materialism, compulsion for a shortcut to affluence, glorification and approbation [of ill-gotten wealth] by the general public, are among the reasons for the persistence of corruption in Nigeria (Nduilor 1999). It has also been noted by various scholars like Abogunrin (2003) Oladunjoye (2004) that one of the unfortunate parameter of good life in Nigeria, is ostentatious living and affluence. Because of this, the quest for wealth and ritual murder for money making is on the rise. Ogugbuaja notes some few cases of ritual murder in Nigeria, and gave examples.

 

a.                   A middle-aged woman and an SSS3 female student were reportedly beheaded in Akure, the Ondo State capital recently (This Day News, July 7, 2002).

b.                   Another case was that of the 1996 Clement Duru (alias 'Otokoto') ritual killing episode at Owerri in Imo State. A well-known proprietor of 'Otokoto' hotel, Clement Duru was reported to have been killing and selling the body parts of some of the travelers that checked into his hotel at Owerri. And recently, another incident of ritual killing was reported in the area (see Ogugbuaja, The Guardian, May 16, 2002).

 

Other factors noted by Dike include poor reward system and greed; He posits that Nigerias reward system is, perhaps, the poorest in the world. Nigeria is a society where national priorities are turned upside down; hard work is not rewarded, but rogues are often glorified in Nigeria. It is true that rogues are celebrated in Nigeria. Those who worked hard are not recognized. This is quite unfortunate.

 

THE EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION

The effect of corruption on the national polity cannot be overemphasized. Corruption usually has negative impact on the socio-political and economic development of any nation. The menace should be tackled before the cankerworm spread to every facet of the polity. Dike notes the following effects of corruption on the nation.

1.       Reduction in public spending on education. The effect of corruption on education comes from the fact that the government spends relatively more on items to make room for "graft" And corrupt government officials would shift government expenditures to areas in which they can collect bribes easily.

2.       Large and hard-to-manage projects, such as airports or highways, make fraud easy. In addition, poverty and income inequalities are tied to corruption. Development projects are often made unnecessarily complex in Nigeria to justify the corrupt and huge expense on it. The new national stadium in Abuja, which is said to have gulped millions of Naira more than necessary, is a case in point.

3.       The effect of corruption is noted on the poor state of infrastructure and road network. Most of the infrastructures are not well built and the roads not well constructed. Barely the government would open a road network that potholes and erosion will carry it away. The state of most roads that have just been constructed is appalling. As a result of the poor state of the road, accidents are common on this road. Recently some buildings are collapsing in the country as a result of corruption. Those who supposed to supervise and approve the building construction thoroughly would not do so once they collect graft from the owner of such building. The shady job done by this contractor has led to the untimely death of many people

4.       Many of the leaders are still corrupt and amassing wealth to themselves. Worst still is the security outfit that is saddled with the responsibility of securing the nation has been caught aiding and abetting armed robbers to unleash terror on the masses. Poverty is the result of corruption. Despite the huge resources the nature has endowed on the nation most people are still languishing in penury and misery.

5.       Corruption causes a reduction in quality of goods and services available to the public, as some companies could cut corners to increase profit margins. Corruption effects investment, economic growth, and government expenditure choices; it also reduces private investment.

 

HOLISTIC APPROACH TO CORRUPTION CONTROL IN NIGERIA

All attempts to solving the problem of corruption in Nigeria have not yielded much fruit. No carnal solution or remedies will do the work. Sociologist, psychologist and political scientists have proffered different solution to curbing the menace but the problem of corruption has defied human solution. Corruption has really eaten deep into the fabric of the society. In fact, it has become part of the national life. The masses do not help the situation in that they themselves give bribes and encourage government officials and security men to steal and loot the treasury. Churches and para churches organization invite politicians to donate huge sums of money for the work of the Lord. Where do they expect them to get the money from?

 


 

 

Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 

 


Is it not from the coffers of the government? Contractors inflate contract for selfish reasons. Dike notes that Nigeria has, in theory, the solutions in the book to tackle corruption; but like other issues (poverty, etc) bedeviling the nation, implementations of these laws are the Achilles heel (a vulnerable point) of the society (The Guardian, July 2002). Similarly, Robert A. Dahl notes that the Achilles heel of the small state is its military weakness in the face of a large state (Dahl 1998:73). Osoba (2002) gave reasons why corruption still rife in the country. He notes that the solution proffered for solving corruption is operated at a level [of mere] symbolism. Yes, corruption has defied all measures adopted to combat it in Nigeria apparently because those clamoring for stricter punishment for corrupt officials are themselves corrupt. Because of the corrosive effects of corruption in national development, and given the relative limited resources or poverty in the region, Africa, and indeed Nigeria, can least afford to be corrupt?

Three approaches are adopted for controlling corruption in Nigeria

 

A.      Sociological Approach to Controlling Corruption

The value system of integrity, hard work, honesty and selfless service, which were known for in the past has been replaced with dishonesty, distrust and quest for material possession. Today people want to work little and gain huge profit. Majority are not mindful of their reputation and integrity again, what they are clamoring for is money and wealth. This is why corruption rate has been so high in Nigeria. People are not contented with what they are earning, they want more and unless the individuals are re-oriented towards selfless service little will be achieved on corruption control. The Nigerian society has accepted corruption as part of the national life, nearly every sector of the nation is affected and the reason for this is because of bad leadership. Aluko (2002) notes two factors that are responsible for increase in corruption these are poverty and bad governance. He posits that poverty remains the root and anchor of corruption in Nigeria. He observers that

 

Poverty has increased over the past few years in line with the deterioration in the economic and social conditions in the country. According to the Human Development Report (HDR) in 1996, most Nigerians live below poverty line. The gap between the rich and the poor is so wide that the rich ones can afford to buy even the conscience of the poor ones. There is lack of social security while unemployment has reached alarming levels.

 

Poverty is a disease that needs to be treated with all seriousness if not treated it would destroy the whole system. Poverty makes people to do what they dont want to do. It makes them to become vulnerable to all kinds of social vices. So, poverty makes people vulnerable and susceptible to corruption. Poverty makes people succumb quite easily to pressures and temptations. No wonder people can be easily settled. As a result of the high level of unemployment, many people do not have any visible means of livelihood and as a last resort make politics a vocation and sources of livelihood. This category of people is ready to do anything whether legal or illegal to survive. In order to eradicate corruption in politics, Aluko suggest the following;

1.       The gap between the rich and the poor must be closed so that no man will be rich enough to buy his fellow men.

2.       There must be social security schemes that will enhance peoples welfare while the level of unemployment must be drastically reduced. The argument is that people indulge in all forms of corrupt practices in politics because they are poor and left with no other rational options.

In addition to the suggestions above

3.       The government should create a conducive atmosphere for job and wealth creation. Government should make farming attractive and productive. People should be encouraged to go into farming either on small or large scale farming.

4.       Every citizen should insist on the rule of law. Everyone should decide to obey the law, pay their taxes and avoid doing anything that would make law enforcement agent to demand bribe from you.

5.       Prompt and adequate remuneration of workers wages. If workers are being paid well and as at when due, the danger of falling into temptation of bribery in the offices would be reduced. For example, the police are not being paid well and they try to make ends meet at every check point by collecting bribery from innocent drivers and passengers. Some of them have become beggars on the highway, if they are being paid well they would not have been begging rather they would face their duty squarely.


 

 

 

 

 

Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 


 

6.       The other thing is leadership problem. It is generally believed that bad leadership is the bane of the Nigerian states. The leaders at all levels are corrupt. Aluko notes that, from the first republic and up till now, the problem of leadership has been the bane of Nigerian politics.

 

What everyone should work towards is to ensuring that good leaders are voted in, those who are ready to serve the nation. There are good leaders in the country but because they would not give bribe they are not elected into offices. Take for example Governor Fashola of Lagos State; this man has transformed the whole of Lagos state. When leaders are selfless and have the love of the masses at heart poverty would be reduced.

 

B.      Theological Approach to Controlling Corruption

Theologically, God has made provision for man's freedom from the bondage of sin. Corruption whether moral or political is a sin and whosoever that engages in it is under the bondage of sin. According to the Bible, covetousness and greed leads to corruption. Man has forgotten that the life of a person does not consist in the abundance of what that person possesses. Jesus told a parable of the Rich Fool in Luke 12:16-23. When a man is greedy or covetous he would be corrupt. Greed cut across every area of life.

 

The theological solution for corruption control is for all to see God as the source of wealth, power and position and the recognition of that God to meet all needs. When God is placed in focus corruption will be reduced. All religions recognized God as the supreme and sovereign. Therefore, People should know that nothing is brought into this world and nothing will be taking away from it. Paul says if we have food and raiment we should be content. Lack of contentment has led some to do things that are against their conscience and against the will of God. The author of Hebrew encouraged Christians to be contented with what God has endowed them with (Heb 13:5-6).

 

The heart of the people should be worked on. All actions come from the heart. When the heart is corrupt what do you expect? Corruption is in the heart. No matter what has been said about corruption control, if the heart is not touched or circumcised it will continue to be corrupt. Jesus notes this in Matthew 15:19 For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies etc

 

C. Political Approach to Controlling Corruption in Nigeria

For this approach to be effective the leaders must have a will to carry out these suggestions. I believe that machinery should be set in place which will monitor awarded contracts and infrastructural development. The government should introduce anti-corruption agency in all government enterprises and private industry should do the same. Government should enact a law that would criminalize all acts of corruption vis a vis bribery, rape, election rigging and tax evictors and enforce the prohibition of fund transfer to foreign countries.

 

To control corruption in Nigeria, the rule of law must be enthroned. The law must be respected by all. (Bassey 2011;91-99 argues, that the enthronement of the rule of law strengthen and sanitizing the judiciary and anti-corruption agencies. Law is the basis of order and peace in any society. The rule of law must be respected and be allowed to take its course. Without the rule of law the nation will not make progress. Bassey and Utre (2007) also have noted that cases of corrupt practices should be promptly and properly investigated and culprits commensurably punished in line with the provisions of the Anti-corruption Act 2000 and the 1999 Constitution, to serve as a deterrent to others. Osoba shares this same view when he says: The law must always take its full course as demonstrated in the case of some financial gurus like Ceceilia Ibru, Erasmus Adegbola and Inspector General of Police like Tafa Balogun and a few others, even though, a lot is still remained to be done to sanitize the society. Coker posits that, various Anti-corruption Agencies in the country should be given more powers. The immunity granted certain public officers should be reappraised, and misappropriation of public money by them should be accounted for (Coker, 2006). The passive nature of those who should enforce the laws vis a vis the Judges, Police and Public prosecutors have led people to engaging in corrupt practices, knowing fully well that they would get away with it. But when it becomes clear that on the matter of corruption there is no sacred cow, anyone caught would be dealt with corruption would reduce in the country. The campaign against corruption in Nigeria can only be worth its salts, if the law enforcement agents are themselves free of corruption and bigotry.

 

Every citizen should be made to declare their assets. The state should require that all high-level Nigerian officials (Presidents, Ministers, Legislative officers, Central bank governors, Police and Customs Chiefs,


 

 

Advances in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research: Volume 2 (1) Jan: 76 - 84, 2012

 

 


Military Generals), sign a statement granting permission to banks and investment agency to disclose the asset of individuals to the public. When the secrecy act is removed every serving officers would sit tight.

Emergency Relief agency should be thoroughly monitored, so that relief materials that is meant for the masses would not be mismanaged or diverted elsewhere

 

Customs, immigration, SSS, NAFDAC and NDLEA and all security outfits should be properly monitored. These agencies have been tagged the most corrupt agencies in Nigerian establishment. The government should see that they are well paid and the lives of all serving officers are insured. Incentives should be given to them to avoid corruption.

 

Finally, the society should de-emphasize on the use of money or wealth for recognition and for political contests. The influence of money as a factor in doing anything for people should be eradicated. This should begin from every home. Giving children money for doing anything at home to encourage them should stop forthwith. The youth should be educated that money is not everything. They should work with their hands. As for the civil servants and those on essential duty such as the security personnel, Aluko (1996) suggest that, the government must introduce an equitable wages and incentive system and improve other conditions of work so that the level of poverty could be reduced and the quality of life improved. This will inevitably reduce peoples vulnerability and susceptibility to corruption. Individuals found guilty of corruption should be prosecuted in the court of law and finally, people should be given the right sense of values which should be inculcated in the people so that they could respect others for their honesty and not just for their wealth.

 

REFERENCES

Aluko M. A. O (2002). The Institutionalization Of Corruption And Its Impact On Political Culture And Behavior in Nigeria Nordic Journal of African Studies 11(3): 393-402.

 

Akindele S.T. (1990). Corruption and Economic Retardation: A Retrospective Analysis of NigeriasExperience since Independence. In: Readings in the Political Economy of Nigeria since Independence. Ed. by Bamisaye, O. A (Lagos, Nigeria: Ventures Limited,.

 

Babatope Babalobi (2008) Causes of Corruption in Nigeria, Report of a Workshop for Civil Society Organizations involved in the fight against Corruption, organized by Zero Coalition, (ZCC) Lagos, December 11-12.                                              

 

Babalola A (1995) Corruption and Political Crisis in Nigeria: A Sociological Viewpoint The Conference Proceedings of the Nigerian Anthropological and Sociological Association.

 

Babalola and Osoba (2011) On Corruption and Political crisis in Nigeria http//:www.corruption watch.org/features/html accessed March 13.

 

Bassey Patrick (2011). The Culture of Corruption in Contemporary Nigeria: The Way OutUnpublished American. Journal. Social. Management Sciences, , 2(1): 91-99

 

Bassey O.E. and Utre (2007), E.I. Corruption and National Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward In Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy. 1.2 (2007).

 

Coker, M. A. (2006). Corruption and Direct Foreign Investment in Nigeria in Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy.9.1.

 

Dahl, Robert. (1998) A On Democracy (New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

 

Dike, Victor (2011). Corruption Control: A New Paradigm for Effective Control in Nigeria On-Line Publication Nigeria World.com/feature/article/corruption.html.

 

____. The Philosophy of Transforming Nigeria into a Corruption Free Society. Are the Probes the Solution? On-Line Publication. Nigerian World.com/articles/corruption.html Oct. 1996 accessed April 10, 2011


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Guardian Newspaper on line accessed February 10, 2003

 

Ndiulor Tony (1999). Price Nigeria is Paying for Corruption The Guardian Newspaper On Line March 17.

 

NORAD, (1997) ch.1, ch.2 & ch.4, Jan. 2000; Amundsen, 1997; Girling.

 

Nye J.S. (1967). Corruption and Political Development: A Case-Benefit Analysis The American Political Science Review. (417-427).

 

Ochulor, Chinenye Leo, Metuonu Iheanacho C. and Asuo, Oduora Okpokam Corruption in contemporary Nigeria: The way out American Journal of Social and Management Sciences Science Huβ, http://www.scihub.org/ 2011.

 

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